Frequently Asked Questions

What is resist in lithography?

A resist is a type of material that is sensitive to light used in photolithography. It sits on top of the substrate and is used with a developer to expose the parts of the substrate that are to be etched.

What is the difference between lithography and photolithography?

Lithography is a process of printing lithographs onto hard surfaces, while photolithography uses light in order to create patterns in film covering parts. Lithography is an ancient technique that originally utilized the chemical properties of oil and water to print designs onto stone. Photolithography systems refer to a microfabrication processes that use a film as well as a light source to transfer patterns onto a resist.

How does electron beam lithography work?

An electron beam lithography system uses a focused electron beam that is directed onto a surface containing a resist to create shapes and patters in the substrate. The resist is electron sensitive: negative tone electron beam resist is insoluble in developer when exposed to light, while the positive electron beam resist is soluble in photoresist developer when exposed to light.

What is micro/nano fabrication?

Micro and nano fabrication refer to processes that manufacture small scale products. Microfabrication refers to structures at the micrometer scale, while nanofabrication refers to structures created at the nanometer scale. The first types of micro and nano fabrication were performed in semiconductor manufacturing of integrated circuits, but they are now used in processes such as etching and patterning, microforming and more.